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Railway infrastructure

Transport infrastructure powered or controlled by electricity, especially rolling stock, is a segment that experiences overvoltage and other undesirable phenomena more often than anywhere else. To make the operation of trains, trams, trolleybuses and other traction vehicles and their equipment even more reliable, these systems need to be protected, and not only with surge protection devices.

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image/svg+xml C BATTERY PROTECTION A OUTDOOR SWITCHBOARD OF THE ELECTRICAL CONTROL HOUSE B POWER DISTRIBUTION BOARD OF THE ELECTRICAL CONTROL HOUSE D LOW-CURRENT SWITCHBOARD OF THE ELECTRICAL CONTROL HOUSE E EQUIPMENT IN THE RAILROAD TRACK F PROTECTION OF NON-ENERGIZED PARTS E EQUIPMENT IN THE RAILROAD TRACK G ANTENNA SYSTEMS

Our solutions

  1. OUTDOOR SWITCHBOARD OF THE ELECTRICAL CONTROL HOUSE
    The outdoor switchboard is used to connect the internal wiring of the Electrical Control House. The incoming power supply system to this switchboard is usually a three-phase isolated 3x 6,000 V IT, which runs along the train corridor from the substation. In this switchboard, the input IT system is then transformed to 230 V and earthed to form a TN-S system. A single-phase system is used as standard. The switchboard is also prepared for the connection of an alternative power supply, usually in the form of a diesel generator feeders and also contains inputs and outputs for remote monitoring.

    In this switchboard it is advisable to install a lightning and surge arrester type T1+T2+T3 on the TN system side, e.g. HLSA25-275/2+0 S with a remote status indication marked with the letter S. The potential-free contact of this signalling is then connected to the control system (typically as an input of a control PLC), where it permanently informs the supervisory workplace about the status of the surge protection device without the need for physical inspection in the switchboard.
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  2. POWER DISTRIBUTION BOARD OF THE ELECTRICAL CONTROL HOUSE
    The power distribution board of the house primarily provides power for its own consumption, which includes lighting, service outlets or heating, but it also supplies the sockets of the backup batteries and is also a source for other potential distribution boards. The switchboard itself is connected from the outdoor switchboard via a 230 V / 50 Hz supply, in TN-S configuration. Due to the close location of the two switchboards, it is sufficient to install a surge arrester type T2, e.g. HSA-275/2+0 S with remote status indication marked with the letter S. If the cable distance between the outdoor switchboard and the power distribution board inside the house is less than 10 m, an HI series decoupling inductor with the appropriate rated current, e.g. HI32 with a rated current of 32 A, must be installed between the two surge protection stages. This is the only way to maintain coordination and proper operation of the surge protection devices.

    To protect the battery backup chargers, which contain intelligent control sensitive to radio frequency interference, it is advisable to add a surge arrester type 3 with EMI/RFI filter, e.g. HSAF16 S with a rated current of 16 A for 230 V AC. Alternatively, another type with a higher rated current up to 160 A can be used. Due to the location in one switchboard, the installation of a decoupling inductor is necessary in this case.
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  3. BATTERY PROTECTION
    Battery operating voltage levels vary. The most common are 12 V DC or 24 V DC, but 110 V DC is no exception. For all these and other levels, we offer a comprehensive range of surge arresters type T3 either with EMI/RFI filter - HSAF series, or without filter - HSAD series.

    For 24 V DC, the HSAD16/24VDC S product with remote status indication marked with the letter S and a rated current of 16 A is a suitable choice.
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  4. LOW-CURRENT SWITCHBOARD OF THE ELECTRICAL CONTROL HOUSE
    It is advisable to protect the switchboard of a low-current system, which is powered from a high-current switchboard with SPD type T3 so that the SPD is as close as possible to the switchboard, ideally directly inside of it. Due to problematic operation, we recommend SPD type T3 with a high frequency (EMI/RFI) filter. In normal low-power operation, the HSAF16 with a rated current of 16 A for 230 V AC is sufficient, or another type with a higher rated current up to 160 A can be used. There are again options to use models with potential-free contact of remote signalling marked as S. However, pay attention to the coordination of surge protectors, i.e. to the distance between individual stages, which may not be observed in cases of a small building. In this case, it is necessary to include decoupling inductors of the HI series with the appropriate rated current, e.g. HI16, between the SPD type T2+T3 in the high-current switchboard and type T3 in the low-current switchboard. This will ensure the correct operation of the entire SPD cascade. The recommended installation is directly in the switchboard prior to HSAF16.

    In the low-current switchboard, it is also necessary to protect the inputs to the control PLC, which evaluates data from various sensors for controlling the air conditioning and heating unit or for the Electronic Security System (ESS) of the building, or Fire Safety Solution (FSS) detectors. But also outputs, through which the data is normally sent to the monitoring workplace, for example, via a GSM antenna or Ethernet. In these cases, for the correct design of surge protection devices, it is necessary to appropriately determine the rated voltage of the surge protection device, the rated current, the type of data communication, its operating frequency, and the interface. Commonly used in these applications are data protectors for 6 V DC or 24 V DC, which have a rated current of 500 mA, an operating frequency of 1 MHz, and the data conductors are connected to screw terminals. The HDT2/6B or HDT2/24B, which has the option of connecting two data pairs, meets these parameters. They are also suitable for RS485 bus.
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  5. EQUIPMENT IN THE RAILROAD TRACK
    There are end equipment along the railway lines that may be exposed to lightning current effects or transients and switching phenomena. These may negatively affect the operational function of the equipment or even cause its destruction. The consequences can be tragic. Therefore, it is important to protect terminal equipment such as switch turnouts and their heating, signals, line safety equipment so called autoblocks and others with surge protection devices. In tramway or other public transport systems, this may include switches, track lubricators, power supply for camera systems, ticket machines or stop lighting.

    The main distribution along the line is usually implemented 3x 6 000 V IT, which is then transformed to lower voltage or further rectified to DC voltage. This modified voltage is an isolated system (IT) with different voltage levels. The end devices can be supplied from a 3x 400 V IT distribution system, for which protection type T1+T2 HLSA12,5-440/3+1 S IT is suitable. If the equipment is in a protective angle (e.g. in the protective angle of the Electrical Control House) and there is no risk of a direct lightning strike, it is possible to install an SPD type T2, e.g. HSA-440/3+1 S IT with remote status indication - marked with the letter S. Another option is the supply from the single-phase 230 V IT mains, where the HLSA12,5-275/2+1 S IT is installed, or only the T2 type HSA-275/2+1 S IT. End devices equipped with electronics sensitive to high-frequency noise, in the range of hundreds of kHz to tens of MHz, can also be equipped with a surge arrester type T3 with EMI/RFI filter. This is a series protection so it is dimensioned for the rated current of the protected equipment or for its back-up fuse. A suitable type of protection is the HSAF16 S IT for 230 V IT with a rated load current of 16 A, including remote signalling.

    For devices supplied with TN-S system, e.g. single-phase AC voltage of 230 V, we can install SPD type T1+T2, such as HLSA25-275/2+0 S with remote status signalling - marked with the letter S. If SPD type T2+T3 is sufficient, we can choose e.g. HSA-275/2+0 M S with exchangeable modules - products marked with the letter M and remote status signalling - marked with the letter S. In case of a different voltage level, e.g. 75 V, products from the same product range can be selected for that voltage. For example, for the SPD type T2+T3, this is the product HSA-75/2+0 M S. If it is desired to install a surge arrester type T3, we can choose e.g. the parallel protection for 230 V AC, model HSAD-P M S, which is also available with exchangeable modules in addition to remote signalling. Alternatively, a surge arrester type T3 with EMI/RFI filter of the HSAF series can be installed.

    DC voltage distribution is no exception in railway systems. For these installations we offer surge arresters type T3 with EMI/RFI filter of the HSAF*VDC series. The most common representative of this series is the HSAF16/24VDC S for 24 V DC with a rated load current of 16 A, containing a remote status signalling marked with the letter S. If the equipment is not sensitive to EMI/RFI noise, a common surge arrester type T3 can be installed, e.g. HSAD16/24VDC S. Both of these series offer voltage levels up to 220 V DC.
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  6. PROTECTION OF NON-ENERGIZED PARTS
    For the protection of non-energized parts of metallic structures in AC or DC traction systems, isolating gas discharge tubes are used to balance the potentials between non-energized parts that are not conductively connected for the sake of operating conditions. This provides effective protection for persons who may come into contact with these parts in the event of lightning strikes or faults in the catenary. They are installed directly on the protected metal building structure using two M12 screws so that in the event of a gas discharge tube activation, a conductive connection is made between the structure and the railroad track. Once there is a voltage increase, whether due to lightning current or e.g. a fallen catenary on the protected structure, the isolating gas discharge tube short-circuits the unwanted current to the track. By connecting the structure to the track, the reaction of the quick-disconnect switch is enabled which interrupts the power supply to catenary. The main representative of this product line is the HGS 100 RW, which is manufactured with a ignition voltage between 300 and 500 V, or the HGS 100 RW 250V with an ignition voltage between 200 and 300 V.

    For tramway systems, low-voltage limiting devices (VLDs) are used, whose nominal triggering DC voltage is typically around 120 V DC. In principle, they provide the same protection as the HGS series, but use different protection elements. They are also installed directly onto the protected metal building structure using two M12 screws. When the voltage rises, the VLD is activated, first by fast-acting varistors and then by high-performance thyristors, which are able to discharge this current until the line's fast switches react. These products include the HL120, which can discharge current up to 105 A for 60 minutes.
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  7. ANTENNA SYSTEMS
    The communication between the monitoring workplace and the Electrical Control House can be done via a GSM antenna. To select the right surge protection device, it is important to know the type of connector, the power of the protected system, its frequency range and, of course, the permissible value of the insertion loss.

    A typical representative of surge protectors for coaxial lines is KO - 3GN with N connector and frequency band up to 3 GHz, which can also be installed outdoors, or KO - 9P with F connector and frequency band up to 2 GHz. For Wi-Fi connection, we recommend HT-NET PoE+ 6cat 802.3at.
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